The earliest inscriptional evidence reveals that Kadapa or more precisely ‘Kadapa’ towards the close of tenth Century A.D. was the principal belief that ‘Kadapa’ meaning in Telugu “Threshold” was a convenient camping place for the pilgrims visiting the Lord Venkateswara Temple at Tirupati. It was therefore regarded as “threshold” to it “on the ancient highway”.
On 19thAugust,2005 nomenclature of “Cuddapah” has been changed as “Kadapa” by the Government of A.P. It was renamed as Y.S.R. District during the year 2010.
The Y.S.R. District was first formed in early 19th century during the British rule. The District is also considered to be one of the District endowed with rich History, Minerals Flora & Fauna. Sri Krishna Devaraya of Vijayanagara Empire, Pratap Rudra of Kakatiya dynastry, Sivaji of Maharashtra Emperor, Tipu Sultan and Haider Ali are some of the names associated with the history of this tract. The holy names of the rivers that cut across the District give the land a sanctity of their own. The District is made up a series of beautiful valleys through which flowsPapagni (the destroyer of sin), Chitravathi(a Hindu Goddesses), Mandavya (a Rishi), Pennar (Pinakini), Penneru (Penna)is the most important river flowing through the District has a legend which is incorporated in a Sasanam (insription) at Gandikota. The Seshachalam range of hills that pass through the district and crowned ultimately with the holy shrine of Tirumala in Chittoor district is named after the Serpant God who served as the bed to Lord Vishnu. Thus, Kadapa tract associated with such holy rivers and hills should, at one time, has been considered as a truly holy land. This tract has also been identified as the great forest of Dandaka through which the King Sri Rama(One of the Dasavataras of Lord Vishnu) and his consort Sitapassed in their 14 years of exile of Aranyavasa in Ramayanam.
The Pallava kings penetrated from a time into the North of Kadapa District and ruled for a certain period during the 5th Century. Lateron the Cholas defeated the Pallavas and their rule appears to have lasted till the later part of the 8th Century. Subsequently, the next dynasty which established its authority for a considerable period was‘Banas’.
With the retreat of the Banas, Kadapa came under the sway of a Dynasty of Kings called the Rastrakutas King Indra III (915 A.D.) and Krishna III were the popular rulers with the death of king Krishna III, the power and influence of this dynasty declined. The Telugu Cholas who were feudatories of Chola dynasty ruled entire Kadapa District and their power seems to have suffered a temporary eclipse due to the aggression of pandyas, but soon, the Cholas kingdom firmly established once again in the district during the first half of the 13th century. In the later half of 13th Century, the district fellinto the hands of Ambadeva, who had temporarily usurped the Kakatiya crown and ruled from Vallur, 15 Kms from Kadapa.During his time, the land survey carried out and a river channel was constructed at Lebaka. Subsequently, a Kakatiya King Prataparudra succeeded the throne after death of Ambadeva and ruled the district with Warangal as the Capital during the opening of 14th century.
But, in A.D.1309, came the invasion of the Deccan by muslims during the reign of Khilji emperor Allah-ud-din and PratapaRudra was defeated and he was carried as a prisoner to Delhi and hence Warangal, the capital came into the hands of Allah-ud-din. But in A.D.1336, the Vijayanagar Kingdom was found by HariHararaya and Bukkaraya. During A.D.1344, a Hindu confederation of Warangal, Krishna,VijayaNagaram Raja and the Hoyasala King of Mysore, with an immense force drove the muslims out of Warrangal and rolled back the tide of their advance. This is the out come establishment of Vijayanagarempire and during the two centuries of its ascendancy, it included the whole of present Kadapa District. During this rule, the natural resources in Kadapa District must have been greatly developed. During the reign of Bukka I during AD1369, his son Bhaskara, then viceroy of Udayagiri province constructed the great irrigation tank of PorumamillainA.D.1369. In Tallikota battle, the Hindus and Muslims forces, contested for the supremacy over Deccan and the Hindus were defeated and the Deccan fallen into the hands of King of Golkonda.
In the year A.D.1714, Abdul Nabi Khan was the first Governor of the District and in the year 1740 the Marathas invaded and defeated the Nawab of Kurnool and Kadapa. Hyder Ali obtained the possession of Gurramkonda and Kadapa from the hands of Marathas and appointed his brother-in-law Mir Saheb in Kadapa District. Hence Mir Saheb and his son Kamaluddin were the first rulers of the District. The District later fell into the Nizam by the treaties of Mysore and Srirangapatnam.
ADMINISTRATION UNDER MUNRO
At the opening of the 19th Century, Munro was also appointed as Principal Collector over the ceded districts. Four sub collectors were placed under his control with Herpanahalli, Kadapa, Adoni and Cumbum as the Head Quarters. Military contingents were also posted in all important places to assist him. Major General Dugald Campbell was appointed commander of the ceded Districts.
Munros Chief concerned was to subjugate the Palegars, who infested the track and establish a well-organized Government. He was equally interested in instituting a system of Revenue by which he could secure his Government the maximum financial resources from the Districts. He enumerated 80 different Palegars of who a large number such as those of Porumamilla, Narsapur, Thippireddipalle, Uppalur, Kamalapuram, Bonamala, Yerraguntla, Settivaripalem, Lopatnuthala, Kommanuthala, Chinthakuntabanda, Sanipaya, Motakatla and Gopagudipalle were in Kadapa District. His measures to keep the Palegars under the control included the issue of Public Notification declaring that any Palegar, Jagirdar, Jamindar, Patel or Ryot who shall garrison any four or maintain armedmen or who shall extort money from inhabitants as KavaliRusum or under any other pretence or who shall resist the orders of the Amildars or who shall act either openly or privately against the establishment of the Company’s Government shall be treated as Rebels.
Munro pursued each delinquent Palegar who attempted evasion of rent who ran from one friendly chief to another in the hope of organising a rebellion. In less than a couple of years, he succeeded in liquidating these Palegars, hence, he accomplished the task of establishing an organised system of government and a promising pattern of Revenue. The revenues were collected with facility everyone seems satisfied with his situation and the regret of the people was universal on departure of the Principal Collector when he left the country on leave. His service to the Government of Madras bears testimony to his success in the River.
The people of Kadapa District responded to the call of the Nation and participated in the Freedom movement. Sri Kadapa Koti Reddy, an ex-minister of composite Madras and Andhra State along with his wife Smt. Rama subbamma and Sri D.RamaSubba Reddy, Sri YeddulaEswar Reddy are the popular political leaders of the District who played a prominent part in the freedom struggle.